An anniversary is an occasion for reflection. As OffBeat celebrates 20 years of publishing, it’s natural to look back and think about how we’ve spent those years. We’ve covered the region’s entertainment culture and the business behind it, and our bread and butter has always been music. More than anything else, we’ve told the stories of the people who’ve made music around New Orleans and in Cajun country. We’ve celebrated our collective past and looked at those who are working today, chewing on aesthetic questions that affect not just musicians but our community at large.
Still, a look back almost always invites a moment of doubt. At some point, if you’re honest, you have to wonder, “Was it worth it?” In our case, have we spent our time documenting the long, slow, sunset of New Orleans’ music? After all, the city’s pioneering efforts in jazz took place almost a century ago, and while many artists are offering interesting twists on traditional forms, no one is developing a new musical language. Similarly, the glory days of jump blues and New Orleans R&B have passed, and the closest parallels to the regional R&B hits of the 1960s are the No Limit and Cash Money hip-hop albums of the 1990s.
In truth, this is an American question, not a New Orleans question. It’s fair to argue that all music today offers variations on old themes, regardless of the genre, and no one’s inventing anything but increasingly specialized subgenres. In New Orleans, though, the question takes on added urgency because of the centrality of music to our culture.
Our instinctive answer is to reject any doubts, but to some extent that’s the Church of New Orleans Music talking. New Orleans’ culture has had a cult-like status around the world for as long as we can remember, and many who return yearly for Jazz Fest experience something musically that rejuvenates them on a number of levels. Belief, no matter how powerful, doesn’t really answer the question, but the number of believers certainly points to a positive answer. To paraphrase the cover of an Elvis album, 50,000,000 New Orleans fans can’t be wrong.
Measuring the health of a music community is obviously an imprecise activity, but we thought the place to start is the place OffBeat has always started—with the musicians. When we look back, names like Satchmo, Kid Ory, Sidney Bechet, Roy Brown, Fats Domino, Lee Dorsey and countless others jump to mind. Are there artists today we’ll talk about in another 20 years?
The artists that have lived through history are more than just talented, though. They mattered. They defined something. They changed something. There’s no questioning the absurd wealth of talent that Louisiana has been blessed with, but the musicians who mattered are ones that did things people had to know about, the ones that made an impact. We asked members of the OffBeat family to identify the artists they thought mattered most in the last 20 years, and the most superficial measure of the results was a good sign. They identified 95 different artists or bands, and a solid case could be made for three-quarters of that list. Christopher Courville argued for Belton Richard’s inclusion on the grounds that “every Cajun singer who likes old school tries to sound like Belton,” and voices that define a genre certainly deserve consideration.
John Swenson made an interesting case for Davis Rogan, citing “being the first ’OZ DJ to play brass band music (and hip-hop), for organizing the outstanding brass band All That, for writing some of the most amazing songs about life in this city during the time frame, and for being the most authentic fuck-up/bottom of the barrel/get out of my house right now New Orleans character on the scene.” In a city that had taken pride in its characters, that argument has more merit than you might think.
Not all of the choices used such idiosyncratic yardsticks. The poles used to determine who mattered most are best represented by the choices of contributor Geoffrey Himes and the Ogden Museum of Southern Art’s Libra Lagrone. Himes’ selections were all about the music. He argued for Earl King on the basis of King being “the greatest songwriter that Louisiana has ever had—yes, better than Allen Toussaint, Bobby Charles, Dave Bartholomew or Percy Mayfield, his closest competitors.” On the other hand, Lagrone saw influence or impact as being the most important thing. “We can all play an instrument, draw, write, etc. if we put our mind and heart into it,” she says. “Did they keep their belief alive, be it through education, influence or dedication? The person who ‘matters’ is the person who taught someone.” Most respondents fell somewhere between those positions.
One important consideration was the time frame. Since the question we asked has to do with OffBeat’s lifespan, some of the city’s most important artists didn’t make our Top 20. One respondent argued for Dave Bartholomew contending that Bartholomew always matters, and we couldn’t agree more. The music he made—as well as much of the city’s jazz, blues and R&B heroes, and Cajun country’s pioneering artists—continues to exert a heavy influence today. Our decision was made harder by artists who have done important work since Katrina, particularly Dr. John and Irma Thomas, who recorded the Grammy-winning After the Rain. Are they among the artists who have mattered most over the last 20 years? In our hearts, absolutely.
I doubt it was intentional, but many of our honorees are associated with the major developments of the last 20 years. The Big Easy was released in 1987 introducing the world to the joys of bad accents and Louisiana music, and even if the Cajun/zydeco bubble burst a year or two later, those musics have since reached a larger audience and flourished in the spotlight.
During that time, bounce and New Orleans hip-hop found a national audience, and locally, the Bywater became the new, hip musical incubator. The jazz scene became even more diverse, with a healthy improvised music scene, broader participation in the traditional jazz scene, and brass bands that merged almost all the city’s jazz variations.
When Phish played Jazz Fest in 1996, festgoers wrung their hands as swarms of young hippies took over Mid-City. Since then, the jam band community has found common cause with New Orleans funk and jazz types in their shared love of musical freedom. The byproduct is now one of the dominant sounds in the city, and jam shows are the rule, not the exception in the clubs during the festival.
A few respondents suggested that by limiting ourselves to musicians, we were missing key elements of the city’s musical story during the past 20 years, and they’re right. If we considered those who are best known for behind the scenes activity, Quint Davis would tower over everybody else for the huge role that Jazz Fest has come to occupy in the life of the city and music community. Mark Bingham got love for Piety Street Recording, as did Anthony Del Rosario and OffBeat contributor Rob Cambre for their roles supporting live indie rock and improvised music respectively. We also considered Alvin Batiste and Harold Battiste. Their influence is immense, but in recent years, they’re best known for their behind the scenes efforts, not their own musical statements.
The most complex decision involved Lucinda Williams. Photographer Erika Goldring argued passionately for Williams’ inclusion in this list. “Lucinda put words to the feelings in my head,” she wrote, “some so painful to bear—lost love, lost lives, lost joy, passion, angels, conversation, small talk, good sex, bad sex, loneliness, heaven and hell, God, tears, flings, obsessions, anger, abuse, fear, dreams, blood, blues, lies, fights…it sounds so cliché but her music is like the soundtrack of my life.”
Williams has a strong Louisiana pedigree, born in Lake Charles, growing up in Baton Rouge and New Orleans before moving on. New Orleans lifers have told me about Lucinda sneaking on to Jazz Fest grounds with her guitar and playing her songs off in corner for those who’d gather around to listen, and she did time on Bourbon Street. But even though the state is a central part of the geography of her heart as chronicled on Car Wheels on a Gravel Road, she’s a southerner more than a Louisianan, and there’s as much Arkansas, Mississippi, Texas and Tennessee in her music as our fine state. There’s no question that Williams matters in our American music culture, but claiming her for our list would be limiting her identity to one state in a way that she never has.
In five years, it’s easy to think this will be a different list, one that would include Trombone Shorty, Troy Andrews. He received a lot of love for inclusion on this list, and it isn’t going out on a limb to envision him, Wilson Savoy and Lil’ Wayne being on it in the future. Then again, if you ask us tomorrow, we might come up with a different list from this one. One artist’s contributions, when reconsidered, would seem so unique and irrefutable that we’d add him or her to the list, and another on the list would strike us as a bit ephemeral. Such is the nature of lists, but it also speaks to the health of the music community, even after Katrina. We can’t even consider a Top 40 without being bothered by who we’d leave out.
To return to the question that started this discussion, the wealth of artists who matter says the New Orleans music scene is far from on its last legs. Asking musicians for ongoing, culture-changing inventions is setting the bar impossibly high, and it’s easy to miss the real accomplishments of the musicians working this past 20 years when thinking along those lines. What makes our musicians special is the degree to which they make music that reflects the culture they live in (as opposed the culture they come from). The past is always present in Louisiana, and musicians are dealing with that fact, some by mimicking the old music, some by preserving the traditions, and some are finding modern—occasionally even post-modern—expressions of older sounds.
The music mirrors the city’s uneasy relationship with the larger American culture, fascinated by commercial success and all it implies about acceptance and power, but wary that the trade-offs aren’t worth it. The musicians are making music that, like the city itself, suggests an alternative to mainstream American culture, one that we’d all like to think is a model for what popular music could be if its makers believed the values they claim to espouse. We have a remarkable number of talented artists making important music, and in retrospect, OffBeat has had the privilege of documenting an amazing time in the life of the city’s musical community.
Astral Project: Over the last 20 years, Astral Project has been the best jazz ensemble in New Orleans and is recognized as one of the finest modern jazz combos in the country. The band is entering its 30th year together next year, and it has been a launch pad rather than a prison, with each member playing important roles in the community individually as well as in the group. The ubiquitous drummer Johnny Vidacovich has a regular Maple Leaf gig as part of The Trio with bassist George Porter Jr. and a different guest each week. Guitarist Steve Masakowski is an endowed chair in UNO’s jazz studies program, and Tony Dagradi teaches at Loyola while playing with the New Orleans Saxophone Quartet. Bassist James Singleton has played everything from trad jazz to experimental jazz with 3Now4 and its various offshoots. The band has a finger in almost every jazz pot in the city.
Danny Barker: Jazz banjoist Danny Barker was a living link to a number of important New Orleans traditions before his death in 1994. In the early 1970s at a point when the brass band was in danger of dying, he helped reignite the form founding the Fairview Baptist Church Marching Band. He wrote about the origins of the jazz funeral in A Life in Jazz in 1986, then shocked everyone when he died and left instructions that he not receive one because they had become too undignified and lost their purpose. His widow, “Blue Lu” Barker relented and let musicians have one for him if it was properly done, but his last decision was a wake-up call for an important tradition, and the jazz funeral traditions are once again respected.
Beau Jocque: Beau Jocque carried his most important traits, the power and sheer stamina of his performances, in his massive frame, and his recordings don’t do him justice. In the wake of his death, his influence is harder to trace than those who left a discernible body of work or clear stylistic stamp. But anyone who followed zydeco history from the 1980s on will tell you that his approach to the music led directly to the transition from the older, blues-based zydeco style to the more urban, R&B-driven styles that flourish today.
BeauSoleil: BeauSoleil represents western Louisiana not just to New Orleans at Jazz Fest but to the rest of the world. In the 1970s, they were instrumental to the revival of Cajun music, introducing it to an international audience, and in 2005, Michael Doucet received the National Heritage Fellowship from the National Endowment for the Arts for his work unearthing and reviving unrecorded Cajun songs and teaching the music at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. In the last 20 years, BeauSoleil has continued to popularize Cajun music, all the while exploring its boundaries and relationships to other music, incorporating elements of jazz, blues, country and Tex-Mex in their sound.
Boozoo Chavis: The Beau vs. Boo battle is settled once and for all; they’re both on our list. A folk legend needs to fashion an outlandishly entertaining persona during his life and leave a defining legacy for his followers to emulate after it. The late Boozoo Chavis qualifies both ways as the last King of Zydeco, enshrined as such in song by rock mythmakers NRBQ and survived by a host of sons, grandsons, cousins and nephews who still play the songs he wrote mythologizing his days on Dog Hill as a farmer, horse trainer, party host and musician. Boozoo defined zydeco on record with 1955 hit “Paper in My Shoe,” then after a 10-year career, virtually retired. He brought the classic zydeco sound with him when he returned to action in 1986, when he was more active than ever, recording five albums in the next four years and performing regularly until his death in 2001.
Harry Connick, Jr.: Harry Connick, Jr.’s early success as a crooner gave him the license to make more personal musical statements that explored the relationship between traditional New Orleans jazz and the end of the 20th Century. He has also used his platform to introduce many New Orleans musicians to the world as featured members of his band. It would wrong, though, to ignore his Sleepless in Seattle crooner fame because it, too, has had an impact. It’s hard to imagine young throwbacks such as Michael Bublé being signed to major labels had Connick not demonstrated that the market was still there.
Galactic: From humble beginnings with more passion than precision as Galactic Prophylactic, Galactic has become the Cadillac of the college-based funk bands. In the process, it has become harder edged and more experimental without losing the ability to move a festival or barroom audience all night long. Galactic’s intense tour schedule has been instrumental in meeting and playing with a number of jazz/jam/funk fellow travelers, and together or individually, the band has been central to the development of the jazz/jam/funk scene that has emerged in the last decade.
Donald Harrison, Jr.: Saxophonist Donald Harrison Jr. had already completed what most musicians would call a career when the influential band he co-led with fellow New Orleans native trumpeter Terence Blanchard broke up in 1989. But Harrison was only beginning. Having reached the pinnacle of accomplishment in post-bop jazz, he restlessly scanned the musical landscape for a way to give voice to his immense creativity. Choosing to work in a number of genres at once, Harrison has released a series of albums that are touchstones of contemporary New Orleans music, particularly the immensely important 1992 release Indian Blues, in which he brought the Mardi Gras Indian music learned from his father Donald Harrison into a vibrant contemporary jazz/R&B setting. Harrison continues to perform and record in traditional jazz settings with both acoustic and electric bands as well as what he calls Nouveau Swing, a roots amalgam merging acoustic jazz, Mardi Gras Indian Music, hip-hop, second line and reggae. He is a mainstay of the freewheeling jam/funk live sessions that proliferate on special occasions when high profile national acts come to New Orleans. Harrison has also been a potent influence on younger musicians, mentoring personalities as different as rapper Notorious BIG and whiz kid trumpeter Christian Scott, and he has worked with Tipitina’s Intern Program, often using musicians from that program as his band when performing.
Edward “Kidd” Jordan: Kidd Jordan is most well-known for his decades as a music educator, his knighthood from the French Ordres des Arts et des Lettres, and his integral role in bringing together the original four members of the World Saxophone Quartet for a concert back in ‘76, but more than that, Kidd persevered like few have been asked to in this town. He’s a revered elder statesman on the progressive jazz scene now, but there was a time when Jordan’s own music, his own saxophone playing, was met with at best polite tolerance, more often callous indifference, and at times overt hostility from club owners, other musicians, and self-appointed guardians of local culture. Jordan persevered because he believed in what he was doing and thanks to him, New Orleans has a vital connection to jazz’s vanguard.
As significant as all this certainly is, it would lack force and gravitas if Kidd was an average or uninspiring player, if he was just the local free jazz diehard. But Kidd Jordan plays the saxophone (mostly tenor these days) with an urgency and conviction that few can match, a soulful and human sound that’s earned him serious respect in New York expressionist jazz circles—an environment where screaming tenor saxophonists are beyond plentiful. And in this world as in his role as educator, he continues to be generous with his time and talent, and New Orleans’ jazz is stronger for his efforts.
Wynton Marsalis: The past 20 years has been the Age of Wynton Marsalis in New Orleans music. Marsalis has evolved from a precocious talent with a penchant for controversial statements to establish himself as one of the greatest composers and conceptualists of the era. He has also become a powerful civic leader who has used his immense political leverage as Musical Director of Jazz at Lincoln Center, the nation’s premier cultural institution, to work behind the scenes as an ambassador for New Orleans. The period spans his heartfelt overview of New Orleans musical history The Majesty of the Blues and his visionary piece of musical world history, the Ellingtonian suite Congo Square. Along the way, Marsalis has exposed many of the most talented young New Orleans jazz musicians to the world stage as part of the Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra.
Master P: Percy “Master P” Miller was not the architect of bounce (DJ Jubilee) or the best bounce artist (Juvenile), but he had the marketing savvy to create a business paradigm from the ground up with No Limit Productions, a formula that Cash Money emulated in a contemporary replay of the way mafia boss John “the Fox” Torrio created the Chicago syndicate made famous by his protégé, Al Capone.
Though he began No Limit in California, Master P knew that New Orleans was the mythical gangsta landscape where his vision would flourish. His own albums, beginning with 99 Ways to Die in 1995, were less significant than the marketing skills that enabled No Limit to turn a series of cheaply made productions based on life in the New Orleans projects into a recording empire that completely bypassed the mainstream record industry. P used guest appearances by other No Limit “Soldiers” to introduce artists and created the image of a roster-as-posse, then solidified the image with camouflage and an easily recognized cover art template. Then despite his vocal limitations, he took the whole package nationwide with the success of “Make’ em Say Ugh” in 1997.
Irvin Mayfield: The erudite trumpeter has played Dizzy Gillespie to Kermit Ruffins’ Louis Armstrong over the years as he co-founded the Afro-Cuban inspired Los Hombres Caliente with Bill Summers and Jason Marsalis, then raised the artistic bar even higher for his outstanding work with the New Orleans Jazz Orchestra, a local response to Wynton Marsalis’ tenure as director of the Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra. Like Marsalis, Mayfield also walks in the corridors of power, founding the Institute of Jazz Culture at Dillard University before making a new home base at Tulane University. In 2003, he was installed as Cultural Ambassador for the City of New Orleans.
Neville Brothers: The 1989 Jazz and Heritage Festival could have just as easily been called the Neville Brothers Festival. The entire town was under the spell of the Nevilles’ greatest album Yellow Moon, and its leadoff track, the anti-apartheid anthem “My Blood,” was as ubiqitous as “If I Had a Hammer” at a folk festival. All four brothers—Art, Cyril, Aaron and Charles—performed with other groups during the Fest and the Nevilles’ closing set on the final Sunday was a show for the ages. The years immediately before and after Yellow Moon presented a vision of world funk that crossed time, genres and geographic barriers with such ease that their fest-closing sets were required viewing, even when they were no longer magical. The fact that their absence from the city since Katrina remains a raw, gaping wound for many speaks to how much they’ve meant the city.
Quintron: Watching Quintron’s sidekick Miss Pussycat entertain Blowfly outside Mid-City Lanes during the 2005 Ponderosa Stomp with one of her puppet shows was among the most surreal moments I’ve witnessed over the last 20 years of New Orleans music. Organist/inventor Quintron is actually closer to a performance artist than a musician, using musical ideas as thematic sculpture in service of his manipulation of entertainment facades. With his modified keyboards and garage-designed percussion instrument “the drum buddy”—made from a coffee can—Quintron has blazed a trail for post-modern disco, electronica and all things unusual in downtown New Orleans.
And though it might be odd, it’s also very New Orleans, as he and Miss Pussycat make every day Mardi Gras. That love of theater and costume has since become de rigeur for Bywater bands, many of whom he has booked in the Spellcaster Lounge, celebrated in his music, or supported as a clubgoer. His music is similarly rooted in New Orleans’ music traditions, particularly R&B, and Quintron is the musical director of the Ninth Ward Marching Band.
George Porter, Jr.: It’s not just the “George Matters” T-shirts his ardent fans wear at Jazz Fest that qualifies George Porter, Jr. for this list. As bassist with the Meters, Porter is the foundation stone for contemporary New Orleans R&B, funk and, considering the number of times he has been sampled, hip-hop. He has also anchored the Meters, the funky Meters, PBS (Porter-Batiste-Stoltz) and the Trio with Johnny Vidacovich His own project, the Runnin’ Pardners, has become a virtual finishing school for New Orleans’ funk musicians, and many former Pardners including Mark Mullins and John Gros have gone on to become bandleaders on his own.
Rebirth Brass Band: Rebirth Brass Band has been a fixture on the local scene over the past two decades. Led by the Frazier Brothers, Philip on tuba and Keith on bass drum, and featuring such local legends as trumpeters Glen Andrews and Derrick Shezbie and trombonist Corey Henry, the band’s weekly Tuesday night sessions at the Maple Leaf are the stuff of legend. Kermit Ruffins was part of the original Rebirth lineup, and the group’s relentless jams, kitchen sink creativity and loose groove provided the inspiration for the generation of brass bands that has flowered in the last two decades. The incendiary Main Event: Live at the Maple Leaf 1999 shows how it’s done, but 2004’s Rebirth for Life, a tribute to the late Tuba Fats whose mix of second line celebration and sense of mourning the end of an era, now seems an eerie foreshadowing of Katrina and may be the band’s masterpiece.
Steve Riley and the Mamou Playboys: When Steve Riley started, he was the young upstart accordion player fascinated by Cajun roots music, and at 16, he toured with Dewey Balfa. Throughout his career, he and David Greely have dug deeper and broader into their Louisiana musical roots, and they have served as a model for the current crop of young Cajun talent—the Pine Leaf Boys, the Lost Bayou Ramblers, Feufollet, the Figs (who Riley produced) and many more. And just as Riley’s seniors shared their knowledge with him, he has been not only a producer but a resource and a drinking buddy for the next generation.
Ann Savoy: Ann Savoy’s 1984 Cajun Music: A Reflection of a People is one of the definitive books on Cajun music and its relationship to the culture that produced it. She and husband Marc Savoy have become a center of Cajun music industry, making music as the Savoy Family Band, with the Savoy-Doucet Band, and she is one of the Magnolia Sisters. She has also helped popularize Cajun music by producing 2002’s Evangeline Made and 2004’s Creole Bred—both featuring all-star treatments of Cajun music—and last year recorded Adieu False Heart with Linda Ronstadt, connecting Cajun music with other folk musics to underscore their shared focus on the life of the common man and woman.
Allen Toussaint: If nothing else, Allen Toussaint has stood as a reminder of what is possible in New Orleans music, but he has been more than that for the last 20 years. He has been an active supporter of New Orleans musicians, whether as a label owner (NYNO Records) or as a band leader. His efforts as a jazz musician haven’t been wholly satisfying, but they’ve shown Toussaint remains musically adventurous. Since Hurricane Katrina, he has been an eloquent spokeperson for New Orleans and, with Elvis Costello, recorded one of the definitive post-Katrina statements, The River in Reverse.
Wild Magnolias: Big Chief Bo Dollis and the Wild Magnolias helped introduce the world to the music of Mardi Gras Indians. They didn’t invent it, but by presenting Indian music with a funky rock ’n’ roll band, the Wild Magnolias helped listeners hear the connection between the Indians’ percussion-based chants and the city’s indigenous funk. Recent recordings haven’t challenged the pre-eminence of the career-defining psychedelic jazz funk of the Wild Magnolias’ 1970s recordings, but they’ve explored the connection between Indian music and Island music and rap, lit up by the post-Hendrix pyrotechnics of June Yamagishi.
Thanks to Rob Cambre, Christopher Courville, Rob Fontenot, Erika Goldring, Geoff Himes, Steve Hochman, Mike Hurtt, Joseph Irrera, David Kunian, Libra Lagrone, Tom McDermott, Brett Milano, Todd Price, John Swenson, Michael Tisserand and Michael Patrick Welch for their thoughts and input.
The following artists were considered by at least one respondent to be one of the 20 artists who have mattered most in the last 20 years. Thanks to all for their contributions to the last 20 years of Louisiana’s music and culture.
Johnny Adams, James Andrews, Troy “Trombone Shorty” Andrews, Astral Project, Balfa Toujours, Marcia Ball, Alvin Batiste, BeauSoleil, Tab Benoit, Better Than Ezra, BG, Terence Blanchard, Eddie Bo, Monk Boudreaux, Marc Broussard, Clarence “Gatemouth” Brown, Dave Bartholomew, Buckwheat Zydeco, Henry Butler, Boozoo Chavis, John Boutte, Alex Chilton, Jon Cleary, Harry Connick, Jr., Continental Drifters, Cowboy Mouth, Bruce Daigrepont, Deacon John, Phil DeGruy, Ani DiFranco, Dirty Dozen Brass Band, Dr. John, Snooks Eaglin, Dave Easley, DJ Jubilee, Keith Frank, Galactic, Leigh Harris, Donald Harrison, Beau Jocque, Al “Carnival Time” Johnson, Benny Jones, Kidd Jordan, Kirk Joseph, Juvenile, Ernie K-Doe, Chris Thomas King, Earl King, Anthony “Tuba Fats” Lacen, Sonny Landreth, Barbara Lynn, Clint Maedgen, Branford Marsalis, Ellis Marsalis, Wynton Marsalis, Master P, Irvin Mayfield, Tommy McClain, Tom McDermott/Evan Christopher, Tim McGraw, D.L. Menard, Allison “Tootie” Montana, Don Montoucet, Mark Mullins/ Bonerama, Raymond Myles, Mystikal, Nathan and the Zydeco Cha-Chas, Art Neville, Neville Brothers, New Orleans Jazz Vipers, New Orleans Klezmer All-Stars, George Porter, Jr., Wardell Quezergue, Quintron, Ratty Scurvics, Rebirth Brass Band, Belton Richard, Zachary Richard, Coco Robicheaux, Jimmy Robinson, Davis Rogan, Wanda Rouzan, Royal Fingerbowl/Alex McMurray, Kermit Ruffins, Lil’ Buck Sinegal, Irma Thomas, David Torkanowsky, Allen Toussaint, Ed Volker/the Radiators, Rob Wagner, Wild Magnolias, Lucinda Williams and the Zion Harmonizers.
Published November 2007, OffBeat Louisiana Music & Culture Magazine, Volume 20, No. 11.